How will this blood test detect all cancers at once even if there are no symptoms?

A game changer has come in medical science. If cancer is detected early, then treatment will also be possible soon.

The news is pleasing. Although everything is not for sure now, but it can be of great benefit in the future. Actually, the thing is that a game changer has come in medical science. Such a blood test, which can detect many types of cancers. in one go!

Generally, a person goes for examination only after showing some symptoms for test and diagnosis. Very often, it is this late detection that makes the disease incurable. But the test we are talking about can not only detect cancer in people without symptoms, but can also detect cancers for which there is no concrete screening process.

According to the report of Medical Express, recently 6,662 people became part of a test, which was conducted by the Pathfinder Study (GRAIL). Grail is a healthcare company that works to improve cancer screening. Those present in the sample size were 50 years of age or older. cause? Cancer risk is higher in people of this age. The results of this test were presented at the ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology) Congress 2022, Paris. The name of the test is – Galleri.

Cancer was found in one percent of the participants in this study, including cancers of the type for which there is no screening method yet. This is the first time that the results of this test have been published. The Multi-Cancer Early Detection (MCED) test was measured using both the older version of Galerie (MCED-E) and the refined version of Galerie (MCED-Scr).

Who did the test?
Gallery Test is an MCED test developed by Grail Company. Its main job is to find those biological signals or signals that indicate that cancer is present in the body. It detects the disease by detecting the DNA left by cancer cells present in the blood-stream. It can also be estimated from the blood test that where is the potential danger in the body. So that, the doctor can decide which follow-up tests should be done – such as imaging, endoscopy or biopsy etc. Test results are based on tests for people 50 years of age and older.

What are MCED/MCD?
There is a little trick. When a term or word seems very difficult to understand, try to understand it by breaking it down. Let’s take MCED for example. Full form is Multi Cancer Early Detection. Meaning, early detection of different cancers. Think of early detection as such. Detecting the disease before the situation gets worse. If detected early, then treatment can be done soon. Obviously, then the person will get well soon. Delay will not spoil the game!

Also there is MCD, multi cancer detection. Actually, there is no difference between MCD and MCED. These are just two acronyms. For tests that researchers, businesses, companies, etc. use to diagnose cancer in people without symptoms.
Got the full form, now let’s understand in a little detail. MCD tests are tests that test the biological signals present in the fluids present in the body. But how? Cancer cells themselves release these biological signals in the body. And this test catches these signals. There is also a term for these – biomarkers or tumor markers.

How is cancer detected?
MCD tests are being developed to detect cancer from different organs at the same time. Currently, MCD tests measure different biological signals in the plasma present in the blood, such as biological signals, such as-

-DNA, RNA sequence changes
Chemical change in DNA
-DNA fragmentation (means breaking of DNA into smaller parts)
-Levels of protein biomarkers
Against the growth of any cancer cell, if any antibodies are being made in the body

Scientists are constantly working on new technology to make this list longer. So that more biological signals can be measured.

How is cancer test done now?
These tests are usually done to detect cancer-

Physical Exam – It is done to know how healthy the body is. This exposes many symptoms of the disease. For example, lumps, abnormal moles or any changes in organs.

Imaging procedure – With the help of this procedure, pictures of the inside of the body are taken.

Mammogram – This screening test is done for breast cancer. This is basically an X-ray picture of the breast.

Low-dose computed tomography (CT) – used to screen for lung cancer. Internal pictures of the body are taken with the help of low dose radiation. An X-ray type machine is used for this.

Direct observation tests – Visual examination of abnormal tissue growth taking place in the body is done.

Colonoscopy – a screening test to detect colorectal cancer. The rectum and colon are examined with the help of a flexible tube containing a lens.

Lab Tests – Through this, tissue, blood, urine and other substances present in the body are analyzed. Different tests are done for different cancers

MCD test also tell cancer type?
No. Some MCED/MCD tests indicate a possible site of cancer (eg, lung, breast, etc.). Like other early screening tests, the MCD test only provides an indication for possible cancer.

If someone has cancer, additional tests, such as imaging, tissue biopsy, and surgery, are needed to find out what type of cancer it is. One important thing- MCD tests have not yet been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, some companies are offering these tests to doctors on their behalf. They are designed, manufactured and used in the same laboratory.

What are the advantages of the MCD test?
Because, research is going on on MCD tests, so its advantages and disadvantages cannot be said in a concrete way. Potential benefits can be talked about. they are like this.

These tests can also detect cancer at sites for which no screening process is present.

As the name suggests, multi cancer and early detection, there is a lot of hope from these tests because of that. They quickly detect potential cancer sites in the body. Also, cancer can be detected in different parts of the body at the same time.

One test can tell everything and saves time. Multi Cancer Early Detection Test is a blood test, which is not as difficult as other cancer screening procedures. Therefore, it is likely that people will give priority to these tests only.

How much is the risk?
We told you that research is going on on MCD tests, so what will be its advantages and disadvantages and how, it cannot be said in a concrete way. Not being sure about all this right now is also a big risk.

Also, so far no medical society has recommended the use of such tests for cancer screening.

Coming of false negative results. This means that the report may come that a person does not have cancer, but in reality it is the opposite. This can prevent or delay cancer treatment.

-False positive results coming in the report. That is, the report should tell that there is cancer, but in reality the person is suffering from cancer. A false positive result can cost the patient time and money. It may affect his mental state.

Like other screening tests, MCD is used for fast and slow spreading cancer. In the end, the data that has been found about these tests is the result of preliminary research. In such a situation, these tests are not approved yet. Since we have got information about the potential advantages and disadvantages of this test, it can be said that these tests can prove to be a game changer in cancer screening in the future.

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